Bee Management Introduction – Brood Pheromone.
Brood Pheromone: Queen secretion was one altogether the first of honey bee substances of this nature to be celebrated. A secretion is also a chemical given off by one that controls the behavior of another of the same species. plenty of-of the work on royal (queen) secretion, sometimes brought up as “queen substance,” was done by French researchers. presently another, Dr. Yves lupus Conte (letter from France dated Gregorian calendar month 9, 1997), at the INRA station in Montfavet, has celebrated what he calls “brood secretion.”
Like royal secretion, this is often a “primer” chemical. that means it indirectly results in changes by influencing secretion production of the system. it‘s the same technique resulting in the irreversible move into the third day of larval life that determines whether or not or not it becomes a queen or worker. Brood secretion keeps workers from developing their ovaries (CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences DE la vie/Life Sciences, 317, pp. 511-5, 1994), one factor originally thought to be all together under the control of royal secretion.
It to boot helps staff acknowledge queen cells (Chemo ecology 5/6,1:6-12, 1994-5) and stimulates the development of the employee hypopharyngeal glands that manufacture royal and worker jelly to feed larvae (CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences DE la vie/Life Sciences: 319, pp. 769-72, 1996). Brood secretion is also a combination of 10 undemanding fatty aliphatic esters. This unit of measurement emitted by the brood in large amounts as a result of the cells square measure capped, and in many concentrations varied with the age of the brute.
Proof has been found for specific actions for 3of those chemicals. chemical group stearate created the best acceptance of queen cups, chemical group lineolate caused extra secretion to be deposited in queen cups, and methyl palmitate created heavier larvae (J Econ. Entomol. 88(4): pp. 798-804, 1995). the smart results of this embrace the probabilities of skyrocketing the amount of secretion a colony provides throughout queen rearing. Placement of the queen rearing bar to boot affected the amount of jelly deposited; that nearer to the comb bottom created larger, heavier larvae.
At now, the chemical group palmitate is perhaps the chemical compound of most significance in brood secretion with relevance to Varroa. It looks to use by mites to hunt out host larvae. completely different work by Dr. lupus Conte and his students embrace observing mite pheromones among the Varroa population which can facilitate the management of its population (see letter from France, March 23, 1997). Extra current information on brood secretion exists on the World Wide net.