Queen Pheromones and Colony Regulation: We’ve been hearing a great deal concerning the New World Order of late. The term has several meanings, reckoning on what a part of the world is mentioned. whether or not countries themselves, the United Nations or the U. S. take into account taking action once things get out of management, the goal is usually similar, to ascertain order. The perennial queries area unit what kind is required and the way is it to be preserved. After all, even chaos (most dictionaries outline this as “disorder”) mathematicians currently tell the USA, has an order.
How many have checked out the random movement of honey bees in an exceedingly colony and seen solely chaos? it’s superb that out of what initially look seems to be random movement by thousands of individual insects, extraordinary structure patterns emerge. This befuddled the people, United Nations agency little doubt gave the credit to an array of gods. Researchers, victimization the tools of recent science, however, area unit perpetually finding new clues concerning however the order is established in an exceedingly honey bee colony. That the supply of a lot of-of it’s from the queen is not any surprise, however the main points area unit usually on the far side our expertise.
It is currently definite that sure chemicals referred to as pheromones, regulate several of the activities of social insect societies. In “The Essence of Royalty: Honey Bee Queen secretion,” (American Scientist: Vol. 80, No. 4, pp. 374-385, July-August 1992), M. Winston and K. Slessor state that some thirty-six pheromones are known in honey bees. Those of the queen, referred to as primer pheromones, have long been thought to manage the colony. Studies counsel they suppress queen cell construction by the colony and conjointly block ovarian development in employee bees. there’s conjointly proof queen pheromones attract employees (and drones) and stimulate search.
Early analysis during this field initial known 2 chemical compounds, 9-keto-2- decanoic acid (9ODA) and 9-hydroxy-2-decanoic acid (9HDA), found within the articulator glands of queens as potential candidates for queen secretion. These, notably the latter, were usually brought up as “queen substance.” though these compounds were active, the authors state that once synthesized, they failed to absolutely duplicate the results of submaxillary salivary gland extract.
It remained to get that adding 3 additional chemicals (two of utterly totally different structure) created a pheromonal complicated that was adore articulator secretory organ extract. All the elements area unit necessary for this royal essence to work; removing anyone reduces activity by up to fifty %. The part mix can vary with age. Virgin queens have much none of those pheromones, solely secreting the complete array once being mated and birthing eggs. many alternative glands secrete chemicals that play a task in queen pheromonal communication.
A final a part of the pheromonal puzzle involved, however, the chemicals reached all employees within the colony. The bees within the royal cortege close the queen transfer the pheromones from her to themselves and thence to their sisters. 2 forms of bees were known by the authors: lickers and antennators. the previous disperse most of the pheromone; why their area unit 2 sorts of employees within the cortege may be a mystery. The comb wax conjointly picks up some secretion that is later transferred to alternative employees. The question of however the bees discover the pheromones remains unresolved.
Almost all the queen secretion made finishes up internalized each within the queen’s and workers’ bodies. The route is through either the mouth or the skin (cuticle). This internalization is also one reason the queen produces such a lot of secretion. it’s instructed there can be a push-pull in worker-queen conflict. so as to flee the queen’s chemical management, employees quickly try and absorb and break down (catabolize) the control chemicals. At a similar time, the queen makes an attempt to manufacture additional pheromones to extend her dominance. this is often analogous with several families and societies that show a mix of cooperation and conflict, with some objectives in common, however people having their own goals in addition.
Much of the dynamics in queen-worker conflict happens in swarming. only shy quantity of pheromones area unit gift can employees begin to rear queens. Given a queen that’s perpetually manufacturing these dominant chemicals, the chance exists for a discount in secretion solely as colonies expand their population. in step with the authors, a time is reached wherever there merely isn’t enough secretion to travel around, notably if additional and additional is being internalized by bigger numbers of employees.
The application of queen pheromones to manage to swarm is represented any by Y. Lensky and P. Cassier in “Control of Swarming by queen Pheromones,” BeeScience, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 7-11, March 1992. The author’s distinction emergency or supersession cells being created within the nest’s center (source of queen pheromones lost or terribly reduced) with swarm cells being designed on the perimeters (queen pheromones not reaching the periphery). They determined a two-stage method within the latter process: (1) queen cups area unit created wherever a queen will lay Associate in Nursing egg and (2) the cup with its egg is then reworked into a queen cell.